• The Raptis Laboratory
    We are interested in understanding the structural (molecular and electronic), spectroscopic, magnetic and chemical reactivity changes accompanying redox events. For example, chemical or electrochemical oxidation/reduction of multinuclear transition metal complexes can cause a structural rearrangement, a high-spin to low-spin (or vice versa) electronic configuration change, localization or delocalization of charges (in mixed-valent species), antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic exchange. These are probed by a variety of in-house instrumental analysis methods, including single crystal X-ray crystallography, electrochemical methods (CV, DPV, SWV) and standard spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV-vis-NIR, NMR, Mass Spectroscopy). We collaborate with several research groups in the USA, Europe and China who provide us with access to additional techniques, such as magnetic measurements, EPR, Mössbauer, XPS, synchrotron-based techniques (XAS, XES), surface analysis techniques (AFM, SEM, TEM), and theoretical calculations (DFT).

    In addition, we pursue practical applications of the materials we synthesize and study. For example, we are developing metal-organic frameworks (MOF) that incorporate redox- or photo-active components, as specific and reversible gas sorbents and curry out porosity and gas sorption measurements via collaborations. In another project, we are developing novel Fe8-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents targeted to specific biomarkers. Our new contrast agents are evaluated in vitro by in-house relaxometric techniques, and are tested in vivo (animal MRI) by our collaborators.

research interests

  • His research is focused on the study of metal center cooperation in polynuclear systems supported by pyrazole-derived ligands. Currently active projects include:

    Catalysis (small molecule activation), electronic structure, redox properties (electron transfer, mixed-valence), magnetic exchange
    Functional materials based on polynuclear, redox-active units: Multi-electron acceptors for solar energy conversion, redox-operated porous gas sorbents
    Bioinorganic and biomedical aspects of polynuclear complex chemistry: Metalloprotein models, MRI contrast agents, bio-inspired catalysts
    Lanthanide and actinide coordination chemistry
    X-ray crystallography, spectroscopy, electrochemistry, spectroelectrochemistry, pyrazole coordination chemistry

selected scholarly works & creative activities

full name

  • Raphael Raptis


publication subject areas