Ferrate(VI) mediated degradation of the potent cyanotoxin, cylindrospermopsin: Kinetics, products, and toxicity Article

Zhao, C, Arroyo-Mora, LE, DeCaprio, AP et al. (2023). Ferrate(VI) mediated degradation of the potent cyanotoxin, cylindrospermopsin: Kinetics, products, and toxicity . WATER RESEARCH, 233 10.1016/j.watres.2023.119773

cited authors

  • Zhao, C; Arroyo-Mora, LE; DeCaprio, AP; Dionysiou, DD; O'Shea, KE; Sharma, VK

authors

abstract

  • The presence of cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a potent cyanotoxin, in drinking water sources poses a tremendous risk to humans and the environment. Detailed kinetic studies herein demonstrate ferrate(VI) (FeVIO42−, Fe(VI)) mediated oxidation of CYN and the model compound 6-hydroxymethyl uracil (6-HOMU) lead to their effective degradation under neutral and alkaline solution pH. A transformation product analysis indicated oxidation of the uracil ring, which has functionality critical to the toxicity of CYN. The oxidative cleavage of the C5=C6 double bond resulted in fragmentation of the uracil ring. Amide hydrolysis is a contributing pathway leading to the fragmentation of the uracil ring. Under extended treatment, hydrolysis, and extensive oxidation lead to complete destruction of the uracil ring skeleton, resulting in the generation of a variety of products including nontoxic cylindrospermopsic acid. The ELISA biological activity of the CYN product mixtures produced during Fe(VI) treatment parallels the concentration of CYN. These results suggest the products do not possess ELISA biological activity at the concentrations produced during treatment. The Fe(VI) mediated degradation was also effective in the presence of humic acid and unaffected by the presence of common inorganic ions under our experimental conditions. The Fe(VI) remediation of CYN and uracil based toxins appears a promising drinking water treatment process.

publication date

  • April 15, 2023

published in

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

volume

  • 233