Pediatric acute onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is an autoimmune neuropsychiatric condition characterized by the abrupt onset of obsessive-compulsive behaviors, phobias, motor or vocal tics, and mood changes subsequent to Streptococcal infection or immune disorders. Two subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) have been examined, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder (PANDAS), associated with a group A beta hemolytic Streptococcal (GABHS) infection, and neuropsychological and motor symptoms (Swedo et al., 2012). Factors other than Streptococcal infections and immune disorders may play a role as well, hence the new term PANS (Swedo et al., 2012). PANS clinical features include abrupt onset of OCD with severe restricted food intake. The child may present with concurrent neuropsychiatric symptoms from at least two of the following seven categories: anxiety, emotional labiality/depression, irritability, behavioral regression, deterioration in school performance, sensory or motor abnormalities, and somatic signs, such as sleep disturbance and enuresis; the child’s symptoms are not explained by a known neurological or medical condition (Murphy et al., 2014). It is essential that pediatric health care providers take a collaborative approach in identifying and treating PANS. An interdisciplinary approach should be considered in treatment of children with PANS. Additional research is needed to establish algorithms/protocols for diagnosis and clinical practice guidelines for treatment of PANS.