The impact of the national association of products on buyer perceptions has been intensively studied over the past 30 years. A comprehensive review by Samiee (1994) and a meta-analysis by Peterson and Jolibert (1995) attest to the continuing interest in this avenue of research. However, as noted by Samiee (1994), most of the research has been conducted using a "made in ---" as the independent variable. This approach assumes consumer knowledge of brand national associations as consumers choose among brands, not among products "made in ---." Secondly, previous research has focused on quality perceptions or buying intentions, not behavior in the marketplace. The current research is distinguished by employing brands (with strong national associations) and including consumption history as a dependent variable.