Dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP), diethyl methyl phosphonate (DEMP), and fluorophenols undergo rapid decomposition upon TiO2 catalyzed photooxidation in air saturated aqueous solution. The degradation rates of DMMP were determined over a range of temperatures, under solar and artificial irradiation with and without simultaneous sonication. Solar illumination is effective for the degradation and the use of low energy of sonication increases the rate of mineralization. The surface area and the type of TiO2 dramatically affect the photoactivity of the catalyst. A number of intermediate products are formed and ultimately oxidized to phosphate and carbon dioxide. Possible reaction mechanisms and pathways for DMMP and DEMP are proposed. The Langmuir- Hinshelwood kinetic parameters for the photocatalysis of fluorophenols suggest modestly different reactivity for each isomer. The adsorption constant is largest for the ortho isomer consistent with the adsorption onto TiO2 through both hydroxyl and fluoride groups to form a chelated type structure.
Research has shown that infant feeding practices differ between cultures. A convenience sample of 51 first generation Cuban mothers with infants birth to 12 months of age were surveyed to identify their infant feeding practices, and why they introduce foods to their infants in the manner in which they do. Data obtained from the mothers' responses to an English/Spanish Questionnaire were summarized by frequencies. Findings revealed that Cuban mothers consider a variety of foods from the major four food groups to be suitable for their infants. They introduced solids to their infants at the average age of four months and fed their infants in the manner in which they did because they thought it was healthy/nutritious. Cuban mothers may feed their infants as taught by health care professionals if their infant feeding practices are incorporated in the culture specific infant feeding programmes developed by the health team.