Effort in acute traumatic brain injury: Considering more than pass/fail Article

Lippa, SM, Agbayani, KA, Hawes, S et al. (2014). Effort in acute traumatic brain injury: Considering more than pass/fail . REHABILITATION PSYCHOLOGY, 59(3), 306-312. 10.1037/a0037217

cited authors

  • Lippa, SM; Agbayani, KA; Hawes, S; Jokic, E; Caroselli, JS



  • Purpose/Objective: Performance validity is often conceptualized as a dichotomous process. Effort likely lies on a continuum, however, and psychologists' tendency to rely on pass/fail descriptors of one's effort may not be the only approach. The current study aims to show that when performance validity is considered on a continuum, it may provide clinical information related to cognitive functioning. Research Method/Design: Forty-four patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury were evaluated with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status upon their emergence from posttraumatic amnesia. From this data, previously developed effort index scores and "other cognitive functions" index scores were calculated. Results: Performance on the effort index significantly accounted for the patients' performance on a cognitive composite score after considering education and severity of injury. Conclusions/Implications: Findings suggest that more in-depth analysis of validity test performance is beneficial to gauge a patient's level of effort and is important to consider when interpreting results and in treatment planning.

publication date

  • January 1, 2014

published in

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

start page

  • 306

end page

  • 312


  • 59


  • 3