Validation and Comparison of Two Dietary Indexes for Predicting Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in US Adults. Article

Li, Rui, Chen, Zhongxue. (2022). Validation and Comparison of Two Dietary Indexes for Predicting Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in US Adults. . JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, 152(12), 2865-2876. 10.1093/jn/nxac230

cited authors

  • Li, Rui; Chen, Zhongxue



  • Background

    Two indexes have been used to describe dietary inflammatory potential: the experiment-based dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the literature-derived dietary inflammatory index (DII). How robustly each index represents dietary inflammatory potential and the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not yet been established.


    We investigated the relation between dietary inflammatory potential and NAFLD, and compared the abilities of the TAC and DII scores to predict NAFLD in US adults.


    Cross-sectional data from 12,410 participants aged 20-80 y in the NHANES from 2011 to 2018 were identified. TAC and DII scores were calculated using 2 d of 24-h dietary recall data. We examined the association between dietary index and risk of NAFLD using linear and logistic regression models.


    Higher energy-adjusted TAC (E-TAC) and inversely energy-adjusted DII (IE-DII) scores (both representing more anti-inflammatory diets) were associated with lower hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and US fatty liver index (USFLI) values after adjusting for potential covariates, and the association for each SD increase in the IE-DII was stronger than the E-TAC (β estimates for HSI: -0.39 compared with -0.25; P-difference = 0.036). In modeling the risk of NAFLD, we observed that participants with IE-DII scores in the highest quartile had the lowest ORs for NAFLD as assessed by either the HSI (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.96; P-trend = 0.023) or USFLI (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.68; P-trend <0.0001). TAC scores were also associated with NAFLD as assessed by the USFLI.


    An anti-inflammatory diet is beneficial for reducing the risk of NAFLD in US adults. The DII is a stronger predictor of hepatic measures than the TAC, and we recommend that future hepatic health studies use the DII to estimate dietary inflammatory potential.

publication date

  • December 1, 2022

published in


  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Risk Factors

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


  • Print-Electronic

start page

  • 2865

end page

  • 2876


  • 152


  • 12