HRD definitions provide a basic understanding of what HRD practitioners do and what scholars investigate most are focused on performance improvement, competency, and knowledge. The purpose of this chapter is to expand HRD's narrow definitions and introduce and overview a critical understanding of how identity, privilege, and power are central to individual learning, (dis)empowerment, and experience. Identity is defined by roles individuals occupy, specific characteristics, and by group membership. Society values identities differently, considering particular identities as the norm and morally neutral or superior. This valuation bestows privilege and power on individuals enjoying certain identities and provides limited opportunities to those with less valued identities. The chapter concludes with suggestions for HRD researchers and practitioners to critically assess the significance of identity, privilege, and power in their work.