Hofstedes Cultural Dimensions Article

Newburry, William. (2013). Hofstedes Cultural Dimensions . 10.1093/obo/9780199846740-0069

cited authors

  • Newburry, William


  • Geert Hofstede’s seminal 1980 book, Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values, along with its 2001 reissue and expansion and related journal articles, is without question the most influential work on culture in the field of international management. The two versions of the book alone have been cited over 9,000 times in the Web of Science Database and over 33,000 times by Google Scholar. Related articles and books that reiterate and expand upon his original exposition of his four cultural dimensions have been cited thousands of times more. While his work is not without criticism, as will be noted later in this bibliography, it has nonetheless stood the test of time, and Google Scholar citation patterns suggest that Hofstede’s collective work has been cited as many times between 2007 and 2012 as it has since its original publication. Hofstede defined culture as “the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes members of one group from another” (Hofstede 2001, cited under National Culture; p. 1). Researchers have modeled national culture assuming that societies vary along specific cultural dimensions. While there are many cultural frameworks, some of which will be summarized in a subsequent section, Hofstede’s original four cultural dimensions—Power Distance, Individualism versus Collectivism, Masculinity versus Femininity, and Uncertainty Avoidance—remain among the most used. A fifth cultural dimension, Long-Term Orientation, was added later, based on subsequent research in China with Michael Harris Bond.

publication date

  • January 28, 2013

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


  • Oxford University Press