Levels of DNA divergence among the eight species of the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup and D. takahashii have been determined using the technique of DNA-DNA hybridization. Two types of DNA were used: single-copy nuclear DNA (scnDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The major findings are: (1) A phylogeny has been derived for the group based on scnDNA which is congruent with chromosomal data, morphology, and behavior. The three homosequential species, simulans, sechellia, and mauritiana, are very closely related; the scnDNA divergence indicate the two island species are a monophyletic group. (2) The rates of change of scnDNA and mtDNA are not greatly different; if anything scnDNA evolves faster than mtDNA. (3) The rates of scnDNA evolution are not closely correlated to chromosomal (inversion) evolution. (4) The Drosophila genome appears to consist of two distinct classes of scnDNA with respect to rate of evolutionary change, a very rapidly evolving fraction and a relatively conservative fraction. (5) The absolute rate of change was estimated to be at least 1.7% nucleotide substitution per one million years. (6) DNA distance estimates based on restriction site variation are correlated with distances based on DNA-DNA hybridization, although the correlation is not very strong.