The postmeiotic development of male germ cells, also known as spermiogenesis, features the coordinated expression of a large number of spermatid-specific genes. However, only a limited number of key transcription factors have been identified and the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report that SOX30, the most-divergent member of the Sry-related high-motility group box (SOX) family of transcription factors, is essential for mouse spermiogenesis. The SOX30 protein was predominantly expressed in spermatids, while its transcription was regulated by retinoic acid and by MYBL1 before and during meiosis. Sox30 knockout mice arrested spermiogenesis at step 3 round spermatids, which underwent apoptosis and abnormal chromocenter formation. We also determined that SOX30 regulated the expression of hundreds of spermatid-specific protein-coding and long non-coding RNA genes. SOX30 bound to the proximal promoter of its own gene and activated its transcription. These results reveal SOX30 as a novel key regulator of spermiogenesis that regulates its own transcription to enforce and activate this meiotic regulatory pathway.