To evaluate the therapeutic effect of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), we performed HSCT in 30 patients with hematologic maligancies. Of the 30 patients, 10 underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT), 13 underwent myeloablative allogeneic HSCT while 7 underwent nonmyeloablative allogeneic HSCT, which were designated as autologous group, myeloablative group and nonmyeloablative group, respectively. All patients except the one who underwent cord blood transplantation, were successfully engrafted. Median time for the granulocytes > or = 0.5 x 10(9)/L and platelets > or = 20 x 10(9)/L were 12 days and 13 days respectively in autologous group, 16 days and 19 days in myeloablative group, 15 days and 12 days in nonmyeloablative group. In myeloablative group, acute graft-versus-host diseases (aGVHD) was observed in 3 patients, all of which were I-II grade. Oral mucous cGVHD was observed in 1 patient. In nonmyeloablative group, 1 patient developed intestinal aGVHD grade IV and cutaneous cGVHD was induced by donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) in 3 patients. 1 patient had hematological relapse in autologous group. 1 patient had cytogenetic relapse in myeloablative group. In nonmyeloablative group 3 patients had cytogenetic relapse and were cured by DLI, 1 patient had hematological relapse. 4 of the 30 patients died of infection (2 patients), grade IV aGVHD (1) and relapse (1) respectively. 26 patients are still alive. 3 years overall survival (OS) and 3 years disease free survival (DFS) were 100% and 64.81% respectively in autologous group, 78.75% and 63% respectively in myeloablative group while both 66.67% in nonmyeloablative group. In conclusion, autologous group had less transplant-related complications and mortality. Active prophylaxis of relapse could significantly promote DFS. The transplant-related mortality limited DFS in myeloablative group. More relapses occurred in nonmyeloablative group, but could be cured by DLI.