Manganese Book Chapter

Lucchini, RG, Aschner, M, Kim, Y. (2021). Manganese . 2 501-538. 10.1016/B978-0-12-822946-0.00019-2

cited authors

  • Lucchini, RG; Aschner, M; Kim, Y


  • Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for humans, animals, and plants. In humans and animals, the systemic Mn status is regulated by homeostatic mechanisms. The natural presence of Mn and its compounds in the environment is progressively overridden by anthropogenic enrichment. The main sources of Mn exposure are occupational, including mining, iron/steel making, ferro/silico-Mn alloy and dry alkaline battery production, and welding. Environmental Mn exposure is lower and is usually related to industrial emissions, use of Mn compounds in agriculture and as fuel additives, and the presence of high Mn content in drinking water. High content of Mn in milk formula, in total parenteral nutrition solution, and in drug of abuse, as well as iron deficiency, can also increase the Mn body burden. In addition to increased absorption, systemic Mn overload can result from impaired biliary excretion due to hepatic insufficiency. The main toxic effects of Mn are on the central nervous system, with impairment of motor and cognitive function. Manganism is a neurological disorder that may occur in response to high inhalation exposures in the occupational setting and which is characterized by mood changes and an extrapyramidal syndrome resembling Parkinson's disease. Prolonged exposure to lower Mn doses can lead to increased frequency of signs of parkinsonism. Respiratory, reproductive, cardiovascular, hematologic, endocrine, and immune systems are also discussed in this chapter, including genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

publication date

  • December 2, 2021

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

International Standard Book Number (ISBN) 13

start page

  • 501

end page

  • 538


  • 2