Range Book Chapter

Houck, MM. (2013). Range . 142-145. 10.1016/B978-0-12-382165-2.00269-5

cited authors

  • Houck, MM



  • Firearms examiners are frequently called on to estimate the range from which a gunshot was fired. The distribution of gunshot residue on the target surface can be used for this determination. Gunshot residue consists of the following materials: (1) unburned propellant particles; (2) partially burned propellant particles; (3) soot from the combustion of propellant; (4) nitrates and nitrites from combustion of propellant; (5) particles of primer residue (oxides of lead, antimony, and barium); and (6) particles of bullet or bullet jacket. The terminology discussed in this article is frequently used to characterize ranges of fire based on the deposition of gunshot residue.

publication date

  • January 1, 2013

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

start page

  • 142

end page

  • 145