This chapter reviews recent trends in grain process engineering with a focus on aromatic rice varieties widely grown and consumed in Southeast Asian countries. Emphasis is given to processing equipment with relevant information on processes that can be useful to develop processing machinery. This includes drying, prestorage treatments, postharvest value addition (parboiling and artificial aging, aroma enhancement), cooking, and processing. Various environmentally friendly postharvest techniques such as irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging are also discussed. For the value addition of raw rice, a number of strategies are included such as quick cooking of brown rice and reconstituent rice. The extraction and utilization of aromatic compounds from rice varieties is also detailed. Finally, there is a brief note on recent developments in instrumental grain quality evaluation.