A new neuropsychology for the XXI century. Article

Ardila, Alfredo. (2013). A new neuropsychology for the XXI century. . ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, 28(8), 751-762. 10.1093/arclin/act036

cited authors

  • Ardila, Alfredo



  • Regardless of the significant interest in comparing neuropsychological syndromes across cultures, little interest is observed in comparing these syndromes across time. Most of the neuropsychological syndromes were described during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century (e.g., aphasia, alexia, agraphia, acalculia, etc.). However, living conditions have so dramatically changed during the last 100 years that those classical neuropsychological syndromes have to be re-stated and reconsidered; eventually, new syndromes could be proposed. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of the new living conditions in spoken language, written language, numerical abilities, memory, spatial orientation, people recognition, and executive functions is presented. It is concluded that it is time to re-analyze and re-interpret the classical neuropsychological syndromes; and develop new assessment procedures, more in accordance with the twenty-first century living conditions.

publication date

  • December 1, 2013

published in


  • Humans
  • Neuropsychology

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


  • Print-Electronic

start page

  • 751

end page

  • 762


  • 28


  • 8