Development of metacognitive and emotional executive functions in children. Article

Ardila, Alfredo. (2013). Development of metacognitive and emotional executive functions in children. . APPLIED NEUROPSYCHOLOGY-CHILD, 2(2), 82-87. 10.1080/21622965.2013.748388

cited authors

  • Ardila, Alfredo



  • It has been proposed that two major components of executive functions can be distinguished: (1) one related to complex cognition (metacognition, such as planning, problem solving, etc.); (2) the other related to coordinating and controlling emotional behavior. Contemporary neuroimaging techniques have demonstrated that there are two distinct functional-anatomical networks within the prefrontal cortex: one associated with cognitive control and the other associated with value based decision making-each related to specific frontal-lobe areas. Metacognitive (but not emotional) executive functions have been demonstrated to be correlated with general intellectual level (intelligence). Research has shown that emotional executive functions (such as attention control) develop earlier in life (during the 1st year), before the development of metacognitive executive functions (such as planning and verbal fluency), which develop around the age of 3 and are correlated with the development of a grammatical language.

publication date

  • January 1, 2013

published in


  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior
  • Adolescent Development
  • Child
  • Child Behavior
  • Child Development
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cognition
  • Decision Making
  • Emotions
  • Executive Function
  • Frontal Lobe
  • Humans
  • Intelligence
  • Problem Solving

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


  • Print-Electronic

start page

  • 82

end page

  • 87


  • 2


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