The purpose of this study was to analyze the question: how do people with aphasia experience the world? Three questions are approached: (1) how is behavior controlled in aphasia, considering that a normal linguistic control is no longer available; (2) what is the pattern of intellectual abilities in aphasia; and (3) what do aphasia patients' self-report regarding the experience of living without language. In aphasia, behavior can no longer be controlled through the "second signal system" and only the first signal system remains. Available information suggests that sometimes no verbal abilities may be affected in aphasia. However, an important variability is observed: whereas, in some patients, evident nonverbal defects are found; in other patients, performance verbal abilities are within normal limits. Several self-reports of recovered aphasic patients explain the experience of living without language. Considering that language represents the major instrument of cognition, in aphasia, surrounding information is evidently interpreted in a partially different way and cognitive strategies are reorganized, resulting in an idiosyncratic cognitive world.