Private speech in simultaneous and early Spanish/English bilinguals. Article

Ardila, Alfredo, Benettieri, Kate, Church, Yoandra et al. (2019). Private speech in simultaneous and early Spanish/English bilinguals. . APPLIED NEUROPSYCHOLOGY-ADULT, 26(2), 139-143. 10.1080/23279095.2017.1370422

cited authors

  • Ardila, Alfredo; Benettieri, Kate; Church, Yoandra; Orozco, Angela; Saucedo, Carlos



  • This study analyzed private speech in a group of sixty Spanish-English bilinguals. A Private Speech Questionnaire including questions about seven different conditions, that is, spiritual thinking (e.g., praying, meditating), dreaming, thinking, problem-solving, recalling past events, recalling information, and dealing with stress, was designed. Furthermore, the sample was divided into two subgroups: born in the United States (simultaneous bilinguals) and born outside the United States but arriving to the country before the age of 10 (early successive bilinguals). In both groups and for all the seven conditions, English was more frequently used in private speech, and English was also the dominant language in our participants. Early bilinguals, however, more frequently used Spanish in different private speech situations. These findings suggest that the linguistic environment during early life has a significant impact on the language selected in different internal language situations, but the dominant language is more frequently used in private speech conditions.

publication date

  • March 1, 2019

published in


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Human Development
  • Humans
  • Latin America
  • Male
  • Multilingualism
  • Psycholinguistics
  • Thinking
  • United States
  • Young Adult

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


  • Print-Electronic

start page

  • 139

end page

  • 143


  • 26


  • 2