Unique genetic traits appear to play a role in the increased rates of hypertension (HTN), glucose dysregulation/diabetes (T2DM), and obesity in persons of African descent. Indeed, with increasing rates of westernization/urbanization and concomitant increases in obesity and T2DM, a similar predisposition to the cardiometabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD) can be seen in Africans compared with persons of African descent, with CVD reaching epidemic proportions in many areas of Africa. In addition, the complex relationships of metabolic abnormalities that are unique to individuals of African descent have also been demonstrated in Africans. These include: (1) a dissociation of HTN to insulin resistance; (2) relative favorable lipid profile in the setting of increasing rates of CVD; (3) low levels of visceral adiposity in the setting of obesity and insulin resistance; and (4) a dissociation of insulin sensitivity and adiponectin when compared with Caucasians. Although not well understood, these unique relationships suggest that conventional parameters for CVD do not apply to Africans of persons of African descent.