This study investigated the relationships among parents’ self-efficacy beliefs, parents’ gender, children’s reader self-perceptions, reading achievement and gender. This study consisted of 66 students, aged eight and nine, and 92 parents involved in a family literacy project for approximately one year. The study was conducted in a rural area of Eastern Canada. There were three instruments used in this study: a Questionnaire for Parents, a Reader Self-Perception Scale (RSPS) (Henk & Melnick, 1995), and a standardised reading test (Test of Early Reading Ability-2 – TERA-2) (Reid, Hresko & Hammill, 1989). The Pearson-Product-Moment method and t-tests were used to determine relationships in the data and to identify significant differences in scores on the instruments. Significant positive and negative relationships were found between mothers’ and fathers’ self-efficacy beliefs and children’s reader self-perceptions. Children’s self-perceptions as readers significantly related to their reading achievement. Mothers had stronger beliefs than did fathers in their ability to help improve boys’ reading achievement. Significant differences favouring females were found in children’s reader self-perceptions and their reading achievement. The findings of this study provide a basis for understanding factors related to young children’s reading achievement. United Kingdom Reading Association 2002.