Verbal intelligence in bilinguals when measured in L1 and L2. Other Scholarly Work

Ardila, Alfredo, Lopez-Recio, Alexandra, Sakowitz, Ariel et al. (2019). Verbal intelligence in bilinguals when measured in L1 and L2. . APPLIED NEUROPSYCHOLOGY-ADULT, 26(5), 497-502. 10.1080/23279095.2018.1448819

cited authors

  • Ardila, Alfredo; Lopez-Recio, Alexandra; Sakowitz, Ariel; Sanchez, Estefania; Sarmiento, Stephanie



  • This study was aimed at studying the Verbal IQ in two groups of Spanish/English bilinguals: simultaneous and early sequential bilinguals. 48 Spanish/English bilinguals born in the U.S. or Latin American countries but moving to United States before the age of 10 were selected. The verbal subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (English and Spanish) - Third Edition (WAIS-III) was administered. Overall, performance was significantly better in English for both groups of bilinguals. Verbal IQ difference when tested in Spanish and English was about one standard deviation higher in English for simultaneous bilinguals, and about half standard deviation for early sequential bilinguals. In both groups, Verbal IQ in English was about 100; considering the level of education of our sample (bachelor degree, on average), it can be assumed that Verbal IQ in English was lower than expected, suggesting that bilinguals may be penalized even when evaluated in the dominant language.

publication date

  • September 1, 2019

published in


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Multilingualism
  • Time Factors
  • Wechsler Scales
  • Young Adult

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


  • Print-Electronic

start page

  • 497

end page

  • 502


  • 26


  • 5