Antipredator behavior and conservation are inextricably linked. Predators and human-caused disturbance stimuli cause animals to experience similar trade-offs between avoiding perceived risk and acquiring resources for growth and reproduction. Anthropogenic resource consumption and climate change may create resource shortages for mesoconsumers, limiting their scope for antipredator behavior and indirectly increasing predation rates. Notoriously, humans have been eliminating top predators, relaxing the need for mesoconsumers to invoke antipredator behavior and consequently, disrupting trophic cascades. These sorts of conservation challenges may be approached with predation risk theory, which can be used to predict how humans might influence predator-prey behavioral interactions and the ecological consequences of disrupting these relationships.