Innovations and value creation in major league baseball, 1860-2000 Article

Chacar, AS, Hesterly, W. (2004). Innovations and value creation in major league baseball, 1860-2000 . BUSINESS HISTORY, 46(3), 407-438. 10.1080/0007679042000219184

cited authors

  • Chacar, AS; Hesterly, W



  • Major League Baseball is often seen as the epitome of constancy in American life and many even argue against change in this arena. This article argues that this view is actually outdated if not inaccurate. We examine patterns of innovation at both league and team levels of analysis, and conclude that innovation has been important to baseball from its inception and has created important economic benefits to the team and league. We argue that there have been three major eras in baseball history. We label these the fermentation, institutionalisation and renaissance eras. The fermentation era was one of great experimentation and the eventual emergence of an economically viable league form. We suggest that institutional entrepreneurs were the key drivers of institutional change and innovation rather than environmental shocks. © 2004 Taylor and Francis Ltd.

publication date

  • January 1, 2004

published in

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

start page

  • 407

end page

  • 438


  • 46


  • 3