Microbial communities underpin the biogeochemical cycles that sustain the Everglades ecosystem and play critical roles in processing and regulating various ecosystem services that are important to the health and economic status of the populations of South Florida. Microbial communities, along with their interactions with periphyton and vegetation communities, serve as major drivers regulating macro-elemental cycles in the Everglades. Their structure, function, and productivity are strongly affected by the anticipated changes in temperatures, hydrology, and salinity that are likely to accompany global climate change. Examples of potential changes in wetland ecosystem processes include altered microbial communities which may decrease or increase 1 Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-0290. a Email: firstname.lastname@example.org b Email: email@example.com 2 Nutrigrown LLC., 7389 Washington Boulevard, Suite 102, Elkridge Maryland 21075. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 3 141 Harvard Drive, Lake Worth, FL 33460-6332. Email: email@example.com 4 Earth and Environment Department, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199. Email: jayachan@fi u.edu * Corresponding author relatives rates of biogeochemical processes thus affecting nutrient regeneration and availability to periphyton and vegetation (Reddy and Delaune 2008). The intention of this volume was to provide the reader with a greater understanding of the current research used to characterize the structure and function of microbial communities in the Everglades ecosystem. It was also our hope that this volume identifi ed gaps in our understanding of the microbial ecology of the Everglades that must be addressed to properly restore and manage this critical ecosystem.