A review of conservation legislation in Nepal: Past progress and future needs Article

Heinen, JT, Kattel, B. (1992). A review of conservation legislation in Nepal: Past progress and future needs . ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, 16(6), 723-733. 10.1007/BF02645662

cited authors

  • Heinen, JT; Kattel, B



  • Nepal is considered a leader among developing nations with regard to conservation legislation and programs; it was among the first Asian nations to develop national conservation legislation, sign CITES, and develop a national conservation strategy. We review the history of modern conservation law in Nepal from the Rana period (early 1950s) to the present. The early legislation focused mainly on strict preservation of areas and species; this phase culminated in the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1973. Subsequent legislation has evolved more in the direction of an integrated, holistic approach to conservation and is beginning to incorporate the participation of local people; subsequent amendments to the 1973 act allowed greater rights to rural villagers, and the designation of conservation areas in addition to the more strictly defined protected areas (national parks, wildlife reserves, etc.). Our review of conservation legislation suggests that Nepal has had many successes to date; the country has a protected area system covering over 10% of its land area, and many target species are recovering in parks and reserves. There are also some causes of concern, including staff shortages, financial constraints within the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, and the fact that there is little legal infrastructure outside of protected areas to enforce conservation laws; further, some aspects of hunting regulations are in need of revision. Primary needs include a comprehensive review of these policies and a nationalized strategy to ameliorate the shortcomings. © 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

publication date

  • November 1, 1992

published in

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

start page

  • 723

end page

  • 733


  • 16


  • 6