Health care leaders can help to improve population health, increase adoption of new technologies and medical knowledge, and improve access to services. Today’s health care environment calls for a different type of leader. A leader with an ability to stretch his or her comfortable patterns of leadership style to promote collaboration amongst a diverse group of health care providers and adopt a culture of change and continuous improvement. To help diverse trainees become more effective leaders, this chapter describes some key leadership terms and theories. In addition, it includes exercises to help trainees reflect on their current or potential future leadership activities, and uses case scenarios to help readers comprehend how they can become better effective leaders in their daily activities .