Rodents are often involved at several stages of trophic dynamics. Consequently they often play crucial roles in the structure and function of many complex ecological systems. This study sought to address the lack of baseline data concerning rodents in tropical areas, and south Florida in particular. Live trapping took place in the four major habitat types of the Long Pine Key area of Everglades National Park over the course of one year. I compared population structures and abundance of murid rodents in the four habitat types, and tested multiple weather variables for their effectiveness as predictors of rodent abundance. I found the Long Pine Key area to be depauperate in terms of species diversity. Each of the four species of rodent encountered favored a particular habitat type. The density of the understory vegetation and the avoidance of avian predators in particular appear to be the most important factors in the distribution and abundance of rodents in the Long Pine Key area of Everglades National Park.